GYM FLOOR PROTECTION - GYM FLOOR


Gym floor protection - Natural wood floor finishes - Floor plans for kitchens.



Gym Floor Protection





gym floor protection






    protection
  • protective covering: a covering that is intend to protect from damage or injury; "they had no protection from the fallout"; "wax provided protection for the floors"

  • A person or thing that prevents someone or something from suffering harm or injury

  • The cover provided by an insurance policy

  • security: defense against financial failure; financial independence; "his pension gave him security in his old age"; "insurance provided protection against loss of wages due to illness"

  • The action of protecting someone or something, or the state of being protected

  • the activity of protecting someone or something; "the witnesses demanded police protection"





    floor
  • All the rooms or areas on the same level of a building; a story

  • shock: surprise greatly; knock someone's socks off; "I was floored when I heard that I was promoted"

  • The lower surface of a room, on which one may walk

  • a structure consisting of a room or set of rooms at a single position along a vertical scale; "what level is the office on?"

  • the inside lower horizontal surface (as of a room, hallway, tent, or other structure); "they needed rugs to cover the bare floors"; "we spread our sleeping bags on the dry floor of the tent"

  • A level area or space used or designed for a particular activity





    gym
  • Peep Show is an award-winning British sitcom that stars David Mitchell and Robert Webb and broadcast on Channel 4. The series is written by Jesse Armstrong and Sam Bain.

  • A membership organization that provides a range of facilities designed to improve and maintain physical fitness and health

  • gymnasium: athletic facility equipped for sports or physical training

  • A gymnasium

  • Physical education

  • The word ????????? (gymnasion) was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual education of young men (see gymnasium (ancient Greece)).











gym floor protection - Maxx-Tuff Mat




Maxx-Tuff Mat - Heavy Duty Rubber Floor Protection Mat - Black in color - 12mm x 4ft x 6ft


Maxx-Tuff Mat - Heavy Duty Rubber Floor Protection Mat - Black in color - 12mm x 4ft x 6ft



Rubber-Cal's Maxx-Tuff Mat is a 12mm thick (just under 1/2 inch) heavy-duty rubber mat designed for high impact and abrasive applications. The surface contains a honeycomb texture for a unique and aesthetically pleasing look to fit almost any d?cor. The honeycomb top surface has a classic appeal with intrinsic traction qualities. The resilient qualities of rubber are maximized due the bottom texture of the Maxx-Tuff. Each mat is fabricated with a diamond pattern subsurface, which enhances comfort qualities of the rubber mat. The aptly named Maxx-Tuff is designed to protect floors from wear & tear of commercial or industrial foot traffic and equipment. This tough, heavy-duty rubber mat will outlast the meanest consumers and most abrasive environments.










84% (5)





"The Road from 'Separate But Equal' to 'With All Deliberate Speed': Civil Rights in Public Education" Exhibit




"The Road from 'Separate But Equal' to 'With All Deliberate Speed': Civil Rights in Public Education" Exhibit





Shown here are images from the exhibit "The Road from 'Separate But Equal' to 'With All Deliberate Speed': Civil Rights in Public Education" on display in the Marshall Gallery (first floor rotunda) inside Swem Library at the College of William and Mary. The exhibit will be on display from March 16l -September 2011.

The following is taken from the label text presented in this case:

“Separate But Equal”:

The end of the Civil War brought the passage of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution. The Fourteenth Amendment was ratified by the legislatures of southern states after the passage of the fourth Congressional Reconstruction Act.
As early as December 1865, Southern states began to pass “black codes” to restrict the hard-won freedom of the former slaves and later, after the end of Reconstruction in 1877, Jim Crow laws to codify existing racism even further.

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), decided with only one dissenting vote, made “separate but equal” the law of the land. The suit was brought by elite New Orleans blacks to test the separation of races required on Louisiana railroads under the Separate Car Act. Homer Plessy purchased a ticket on the East Louisiana Railway and was arrested while sitting in the “whites only” car and announcing he had a black ancestor. The Supreme Court ruled that the two railroad cars were equal and that Louisiana had the right to enforce its separate accommodations law. The opinion said "We consider the underlying fallacy of the plaintiff's argument to consist in the assumption that the enforced separation of the two races stamps the colored race with a badge of inferiority. If this be so, it is not by reason of anything found in the act, but solely because the colored race chooses to put that construction upon it."

Map of the Battle of the Crater, July 30, 1864, during the Siege of Petersburg, Va. showing the position of black Union troops (USCT). Private Collection

Postcard of painting of the “Battle” by John Elder also showing black Union soldiers. Private Collection

Image of the Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) decision. National Archives and Records Administration

NAACP Legal Push:

The aftermath of World War I saw many blacks migrating from the South to the North in search of better economic conditions and less overt racism. They flocked to northern cities and came in conflict with whites who were also fleeing the South. Overcrowded conditions, competition for industrial jobs, and the tendency of black war veterans to assert their rights resulted in widespread race riots in 1919. Twenty-five riots erupted with the worst occurring in Chicago.

In addition, a new version of the Ku Klux Klan was founded in 1915, playing on the xenophobia of the era, and its influence was actually more felt in the Midwest than in the South. Despite the prominence of blacks in some cultural movements, such as the Harlem Renaissance, blacks in all regions of the United States found their situations to be precarious: economically as a result of the Great Depression and politically because of poll taxes, “grandfather” clauses and other impediments to the franchise.

The nation’s attention was riveted on Alabama in 1931 with the blatantly unfair trials of nine young black men accused of raping two white women on a freight train. The trials were held over several years in Scottsboro and Decatur, Alabama.

Brown v. Board (1954):

World War II brought radical change to American culture. In 1944, Gunnar Myrdal, a Swedish sociologist, published his Carnegie Foundation commissioned study on race in America. American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy posited that the fundamental fact of American history was the inability of the United States to grant the very freedom the country was founded on to all of its citizens.

The two-volume work, which contains sections authored by many people, including Ralph Bunche, provided clear evidence that the American dream did not extend to all of its people. It was an extremely influential book and with Truman’s desegregation of the armed forces, the time seemed right to the NAACP’s legal advocates to act.

In Virginia, Barbara Rose Johns, then sixteen years old, led her schoolmates out of the segregated and clearly unequal black Robert Russa Morton High School in Farmville on April 23, 1951. The school was overcrowded and did not have a cafeteria or gym. The students filed suit (Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County) and this case was combined with four other cases to become what is now known as Brown v. Board. The NAACP attorneys in Virginia were Oliver Hill and Spottswood Robinson.

The supervisors in Prince Edward County scrambled to build a decent high school for the black students. Hastily trying to correct inadequate structures had been the response also in other southern states, but this did not stop the juggernaut of social and legal change.
The United States Supreme Court overthrew th











Protection




Protection





Taken at the 2007 Melbourne F1. So much protection and lack of connection between the spectators and the sport itself. I must admit that although it's an impressive event I find the whole thing a little boorish with it's mass advertising and loud, overpowered vehicles. I find it hard to understand the strong spectator support and following. AND I got sunburn, which aint cool. Bah, humbug... ;-)










gym floor protection








gym floor protection




Rubber-Cal Heavy Duty Appliance Mat - 3/4" x 4ft Wide x 6ft Long - Black Rubber Floor Protection Mat






Rubber-Cal's heavy-duty recycled rubber floor mat is designed for high impact applications and abrasive conditions. Because this material is domestically made with 100% recycled rubber, this anti vibration mat is both socially and ecologically responsible. Recycled rubber is a superior material for reducing noise, containing vibration, and absorbing shock from washing machines and other appliances. At 3/4 inch thick, our recycled rubber floor protector mats are thick enough to protect most floors from falling parts. In our warehouse, we protect our exterior asphalt floors by resting pallets weighing up to 2500lbs on these heavy duty appliance mats. One of the biggest concerns commonly associated with rubber matting is its installation. This 4ft x 6ft antivibration mat weighs roughly 100lbs and stays down under its own weight. There is no need for permanent adhesives!










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HARDWOOD FLOORING INLAYS - HARDWOOD FLOORING


HARDWOOD FLOORING INLAYS - BLACK FLOOR MATS - BAND BLOOD ON THE DANCE FLOOR



Hardwood Flooring Inlays





hardwood flooring inlays






    hardwood flooring
  • Wood flooring is any product manufactured from timber that is designed for use as flooring, either structural or aesthetic. Bamboo flooring is often considered a wood floor, although it is made from a grass (bamboo) rather than a timber.

  • Hardwood flooring: classic or contemporary, The choice is yours with a wide range of traditonal and exotic woods from around the world. Which hardwoods are right for your home?Janka Hardness Scale?





    inlays
  • A design, pattern, or piece of material inlaid in something

  • (inlay) (dentistry) a filling consisting of a solid substance (as gold or porcelain) fitted to a cavity in a tooth and cemented into place

  • A material or substance that is inlaid

  • Inlaid work

  • (inlay) decorate the surface of by inserting wood, stone, and metal

  • (inlay) a decoration made by fitting pieces of wood into prepared slots in a surface











hardwood flooring inlays - Art of




Art of the Inlay - Design & Technique for Fine Woodworking - Second Edition (Softcover)


Art of the Inlay - Design & Technique for Fine Woodworking - Second Edition (Softcover)



This dazzling showcase of the art of inlay provides artistic inspiration as well as how-to instruction and design insights--written by the inlay artist for U2, Led Zeppelin, and many more.
Over 100 color photographs show you exquisite inlays in musical instruments, wooden boxes, and various objets d'art, while black-and-white photos and drawings guide you through the intricate process of creating your own. The book has been revised and expanded throughout, including an additional 16-page gallery of wonderfully creative inlay examples, as well as new techniques developed by the author. This book is both a celebration of this woodworking art and a hands-on guide to its design, techniques, tools, and unusual materials.










85% (18)





The 8 RAYS Double Frame hardwood floor medallion




The 8 RAYS Double Frame hardwood floor medallion





A relatively large hardwood floor medallion inlay, the 8 RAYS Double Frame can be installed in larger rooms.











collapsible panel inlay




collapsible panel inlay





Inlay Panel for editing a portlet on the BBC homepage









hardwood flooring inlays








hardwood flooring inlays




Bling Jewelry Celtic Dragon Comfort Fit Black Inlay Tungsten Carbide Mens Wedding Ring-9






Dragons mean many things to many people. The Celts revered their magic powers and our Celtic Dragon Comfort Fit Black Inlay Tungsten Carbide Mens Wedding Ring will feel like magic when you put it on. The "comfort fit" rounded edges of this tungsten dragon ring lets you put it on and take it off with ease. Tungsten jewelry is famous for its high-gloss, permanent polish, and scratch-resistant surface. Because it is hypoallergenic, our Tungsten gold ring will not turn your gfingers green. This black inlay Tungsten ring for men is dashing, eye-catching and absolutely durable. If you're buying our Tungsten celtic ring for a wedding, you'll know that its beauty is lasting. A Tungsten wedding band says "happily ever after" with style and panache. Measures: band width: 8mm (5/16") Weight: 11.4 grams










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HOME FLOOR PLAN IDEAS : PLAN IDEAS


Home floor plan ideas : Floor reclaim : Laminate floor installation



Home Floor Plan Ideas





home floor plan ideas






    floor plan
  • A scale diagram of the arrangement of rooms in one story of a building

  • scale drawing of a horizontal section through a building at a given level; contrasts with elevation

  • (Floor planning) Floorplanning is the act of designing of a floorplan, which is a kind of bird's-eye view of a structure.

  • In architecture and building engineering, a floor plan, or floorplan, is a diagram, usually to scale, showing the relationships between rooms, spaces and other physical features at one level of a structure.





    ideas
  • A thought or suggestion as to a possible course of action

  • (idea) the content of cognition; the main thing you are thinking about; "it was not a good idea"; "the thought never entered my mind"

  • A concept or mental impression

  • (idea) mind: your intention; what you intend to do; "he had in mind to see his old teacher"; "the idea of the game is to capture all the pieces"

  • An opinion or belief

  • (idea) a personal view; "he has an idea that we don't like him"





    home
  • Of or relating to the place where one lives

  • Made, done, or intended for use in the place where one lives

  • home(a): used of your own ground; "a home game"

  • at or to or in the direction of one's home or family; "He stays home on weekends"; "after the game the children brought friends home for supper"; "I'll be home tomorrow"; "came riding home in style"; "I hope you will come home for Christmas"; "I'll take her home"; "don't forget to write home"

  • provide with, or send to, a home

  • Relating to one's own country and its domestic affairs











Sims 2 homes - floor plans etc




Sims 2 homes - floor plans etc





store on the right, home on the left - BAD idea to put dishwasher in the little bistro in the store!! The adults in the home with HIGH cleaning skills would wear out their entire energy supply just to take one silly little plate or cup all the way over there when the dishwasher broke in the main kitchen and I was busy changing a baby's diaper or something and hadn't had it fixed or replaced ... (this could only make sense to a Sims2 person)











Plan 116




Plan 116





The images in this set are from 'Great Ideas for Second Homes: A Portfolio of 20 Distinguished New Designs in Plywood, published by the American Plywood Association in 1969. These plans were meant to be ordered from the Home Building Plan Services of Portland, Oregon.

The fantastic illustrative paintings were done by Lorenzo Ghiglieri









home floor plan ideas







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INSTALL SLATE FLOOR. INSTALL SLATE


Install slate floor. Aluminum floor jack. Heated tile floor system.



Install Slate Floor





install slate floor






    install
  • put into an office or a position; "the new president was installed immediately after the election"

  • place; "Her manager had set her up at the Ritz"

  • Place (someone) in a new position of authority, esp. with ceremony

  • Establish (someone) in a new place, condition, or role

  • Place or fix (equipment or machinery) in position ready for use

  • set up for use; "install the washer and dryer"; "We put in a new sink"





    slate
  • A fine-grained gray, green, or bluish metamorphic rock easily split into smooth, flat pieces

  • thin layers of rock used for roofing

  • designate or schedule; "He slated his talk for 9 AM"; "She was slated to be his successor"

  • A flat piece of such rock used as roofing material

  • A flat piece of slate used for writing on, typically framed in wood, formerly used in schools

  • (formerly) a writing tablet made of slate





    floor
  • All the rooms or areas on the same level of a building; a story

  • The lower surface of a room, on which one may walk

  • A level area or space used or designed for a particular activity

  • the inside lower horizontal surface (as of a room, hallway, tent, or other structure); "they needed rugs to cover the bare floors"; "we spread our sleeping bags on the dry floor of the tent"

  • shock: surprise greatly; knock someone's socks off; "I was floored when I heard that I was promoted"

  • a structure consisting of a room or set of rooms at a single position along a vertical scale; "what level is the office on?"











~ Slate ~




~ Slate ~





Explored 06-26-09 #396.. Thanks to all!

Please view ORIGINAL for detail of texture.. Thanks!

This is a stack of slate waiting to be used as outside patio flooring at my neighbors house. I thought the way the workers had it stacked had a certain eye appeal and decided to take a couple of snaps. I liked the results and thought I would share it with all of you..

Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low grade regional metamorphism. The result is a foliated rock in which the foliation may not correspond to the original sedimentary layering. Slate is frequently grey in colour especially when seen en masse covering roofs. However, slate occurs in a variety of colours even from a single locality. For example slate from North Wales can be found in many shades of grey from pale to dark and may also be purple, green or cyan. Slate is not to be confused with shale, from which it may be formed, or schist.

Chemical composition
Slate is mainly composed of quartz and muscovite or illite, often along with biotite, chlorite, hematite, and pyrite and, less frequently, apatite, graphite, kaolin, magnetite, tourmaline, or zircon as well as feldspar. Occasionally, as in the purple slates of North Wales, ferrous reduction spheres form around iron nuclei, leaving a light green spotted texture. These spheres are sometimes deformed by a subsequent applied stress field to ovoids, which appear as ellipses when viewed on a cleavage plane of the specimen.

Slate in buildings
Slate can be made into roofing slates, also called roofing shingles, installed by a slater[1]. Slate has two lines of breakability: cleavage and grain. This makes it possible to split slate into thin sheets. When broken, slate produces a natural appearance while remaining relatively flat and can be easily stacked. Silicone glue adheres to slate.
Slate tiles are often used for interior and exterior flooring, stairs, walkways, and wall cladding. Tiles are installed and set on mortar and grouted along the edges. Chemical sealants are often used on tiles to improve durability and appearance, increase stain resistance, reduce efflorescence, and increase or reduce surface smoothness. Tiles are often sold gauged, meaning that the back surface is ground for ease of installation. Slate flooring can however be slippery when used in external locations subject to rain. Slate tiles were used in 19th century UK building construction (apart from roofs) and in slate quarrying areas such as Bethesda there are still many buildings wholly constructed of slate. Slates can also be set into walls to provide a rudimentary damp-proof membrane. Small offcuts are used as shims to level floor joists. In areas where slate is plentiful it is also used in pieces of various sizes for building walls and hedges, sometimes combined with other kinds of stone.
Dictionary.com












New kitchen




New kitchen





The new kitchen has begun to be installed. We have one row of units along the wall and a big peninsular unit which takes the sink and dishwasher. I think it looks good alongside the slate floor.









install slate floor







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LAUREL FLOOR LAMP. LAUREL FLOOR


Laurel floor lamp. Exterior vinyl flooring



Laurel Floor Lamp





laurel floor lamp






    floor lamp
  • A torchiere (tour-she-AIR or tour-SHARE), or torch lamp, is a lamp with a tall stand of wood or metal. Originally, torchieres were candelabra, usually with two or three lights.

  • a lamp that stands on the floor

  • A floor lamp comprises a stand that supports the bulb holder and bulb, which is shaded to distribute light.  Like table lamps, floor lamps cast a warm, ambient, cozy glow, and are also good for delivering local light to a couch or chair.

  • A tall lamp designed to stand on the floor





    laurel
  • any of various aromatic trees of the laurel family

  • (antiquity) a wreath of laurel foliage worn on the head as an emblem of victory

  • Adorn with or as if with a laurel

  • United States slapstick comedian (born in England) who played the scatterbrained and often tearful member of the Laurel and Hardy duo who made many films (1890-1965)











laurel floor lamp - Laurel Court




Laurel Court Shade Arc Floor Lamp


Laurel Court Shade Arc Floor Lamp



This floor lamp's contemporary good looks are matched by its practical design. The custom-made shade features a plastic diffuser at the bottom to prevent glare. The shade pattern is printed on high-quality canvas with the same technique used in reproducing museum-quality artwork. The base features a sleek, brushed steel finish. U.S. Patent # 7,347,593. Brushed steel finish. Custom giclee shade. On/off switch. Takes two 100 watt bulbs (not included). 71 1/2" high. Shade is 16" wide and 5 1/2" high.










89% (16)





Union Square Savings Bank




Union Square Savings Bank





Daryl Roth Theatre, Union Square, Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States

Summary

The Union Square Savings Bank, originally the Institution for the Savings of Merchants' Clerks, was built in 1905-07 to the designs of Henry Bacon in a bold and monumental Academic Classic style popularized by the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago. It is his largest and best-known bank commission. The Union Square Savings Bank enjoys a prominent position on the east side of Union Square at the corner of East 15th Street, and Bacon's design accentuates its prominence with a freestanding portico supported on four giant Corinthian columns and a monumental entranceway behind the columns. It was also an unusual work for Bacon, who specialized in the design of public monuments and is best known for having designed the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., completed in 1923. The bank building remains largely intact on the exterior.

The Development of Union Square

The Commissioners Map of 1807-11, which first laid out the grid plan of Manhattan above Houston Street, allowed for certain existing thoroughfares to retain their configuration. Bloomingdale Road (now Broadway), and the Bowery intersected at 16th Street. The acute angle formed by this "union" was set aside by the Commissioners and named Union Place. Initially Union Place extended from 10th to 17th Streets, on land owned by the Manhattan Bank:

It then presented to the eye of the tourist and pedestrian a shapeless and ill-looking collection of lots, where garden sauce flourished -- devoid of symmetry and around which were reared a miserable group of shanties.

In 1815, the state legislature reduced the size of Union Place by making 14th Street its southern boundary. As the City expanded northward and land use intensified, the need for open spaces became apparent. A report drafted by the street committee in 1831 states the need for public squares "for purposes of military, and civic parades, and festivities, and ... to serve as ventilators to a densely populated city."3 Designated a public space in 1832 at the urging of local residents, additional land was acquired so that the area could be regularized. Graded, paved, and fenced, Union Place was finally opened to the public in July 1839. Throughout much of its history, the square has been used for public gatherings, political rallies, and demo nstrations.

By the 1850s, Union Square (as it came to be known) was completely surrounded by buildings including some of the city's most splendid mansions; but "already by 1860, the dramatic march of commerce had begun."4 Theaters, hotels, and luxury retailers predominated in the 1870s. By the 1890s, the vestiges of the fashionable residential area, as well as the elegant stores and theaters, had been supplanted on Union Square by taller buildings that catered to the needs of publishers and manufacturers who had moved uptown.

The Union Square Savings Bank stands prominently on the northeast corner of Union Square East and East 15th Street. The bank, originally called the Institution for the Savings of Merchants' Clerks, moved to this location in 1868, during a time when the area was being transformed from a residential to a commercial district. In 1905-07, the newly renamed Union Square Savings Bank replaced the older building with the present structure.

The Union Square Savings Bank

Originally located at 5 Beekman Street and later at 516 Broadway, the bank was founded in 1848 as the Institution for the Savings of Merchants' Clerks, by members of the New York Chamber of Commerce and the Mercantile Library Association, including prominent merchants William H. Macy and James G. King, to "encourage the clerks of business men to take care of their earnings."
The bank purchased a Greek Revival row house on the northeast corner of Union Square East and East 15th Street in 1867. After adding a mansard roof and new frontispiece to the row house, the bank moved its operations there the following year. In 1904, the bank successfully petitioned the Supreme Court of the State of New York for permission to change its name to the Union Square Savings Bank, claiming the former name was no longer suitable to an institution that "draws its depositors from all classes in the community, and not alone from merchants' clerks."
The petition also noted the bank's long presence on Union Square and its intention to construct a new bank building there as proof of its commitment to the Union Square area and as a further justification for the name change.

Banks and Architectural Imagery

As industry, business, and commerce prospered after the Civil War, New York became the nation's financial capital. Apart from a few imposing buildings on Wall Street, however, banks were for the most part located in converted residences, or in office buildings, but prior to the 1880s and 1890s, rarely in quarters designed for them. Property values b











614 Courtlandt Avenue Building




614 Courtlandt Avenue Building





Melrose, Bronx

No. 614 Courtlandt Avenue , an early multi-use building in the Bronx, was built in 1871-72 for Julius Ruppert and contained a saloon, public rooms, meeting rooms, and a residential flat. Most likely the work of a builder-contractor, the imposing building displays a variety of early to late Second Empire style motifs successfully combined to reconcile the several uses contained within the building with their exterior expression. Hewlett S. Baker's renovation in 1882 only further enriched the facade.

The building is a monument to the first stage of urbanization within what had been the previously rural south Bronx, helping by its presence to establish a sense of place in the new village of Melrose South. No. 614 also has many of the stylistic features which characterized the buildings along the Bowery between Canal and Houston Streets in the area known as "Kleine Deutschland," where Julius Ruppert first established his business before following his fellow Germans to the Bronx. With its varied uses, the building sheltered a variety of German ethnic activities.

Melrose South and its Early Settlers

The majority of the mid-19th century settlers in New York City's future 23rd Ward (1874), the southwest Bronx, arrived from Manhattan's Lower East Side, eager to leave their noisy and dark, cramped and airless tenements. One of their earliest objectives was the sparsely populated freehold manor, seat of the Morris family who had been prominent in colonial government and the affairs of the early republic, which only recently had been opened for development. Though not a model for subsequent expansion, "New Village," the first subdivision, carries with it some of the method and some of the ingredients of those that followed. In 1848 an association 222 members strong, for the most part German and some Irishmen, mechanics and laboring men, met at the Military Hall at 193 Bowery. Represented by their agents, Jordan Mott, Nicholas McGraw and Charles W. Houghton, they had purchased 200 acres from Gouvemeur Morris, _ Jr.

Lots were drawn and assigned with but one proviso: each owner was to erect a house of no less than $300.00 value within three years, and Morris executed a deed to each new owner. In 1850 New Village became Morrisania, when Mott's early development along the Harlem River, (which had been Morrisania) became Mott Haven.

New Village's success inspired Morris to develop his property further. With Robert Elton and Hampton Denman he had Andrew Findlay, a surveyor, lay out several more communities, Woodstock, Melrose and Melrose East and South, in 1850. Melrose South was incorporated as a village a year later, and in 1864 Morrisania was incorportated as a township, embracing these and ten other villages.

At the time of its incorporation as a village, the boundaries of Melrose South were East 160th Street and the Village of Melrose to the north and East 148th Street and Mott Haven to the south. Its eastern boundary was the Old Boston Post Road (Third Avenue) and its western boundary the railroad. But before the Civil War the area was principally farmland. In 1856 the number of dwellings totalled 173; twelve years later there were 488. Like the citizens of New Village, the preponderance of Melrose South's first residents were German, seeking a healthier alternative to life on the Lower East Side.

Courtlandt Avenue, running north and south along a ridge, was the main shopping street, lined by beer halls and the scene of parades by German bands. Intersecting it, from south to north, were Mott, Benson, Denman,Gouverneur, Wilton, Schuyler, Springfield, Mary and Melrose streets.

The Protection Hall, whose members sponsored marching bands and drill teams, had its headquarters — incorporating a beer garden, bowling alley and dance hall — on the west side of Courtlandt between Springfield (154th) and Mary (155th) Streets. Melrose South had its own brewery, J. & M. Haffen's on Elton (152nd) between Courtlandt and Melrose. The Arion Liedertafel Hall was on the west side of Courtlandt between Benson and Gouverneur and so was the Melrose Turn v ere in. There were many beer gardens too. Indeed, Melrose South was compared with the area around Manhattan's Tompkins Square — "Kleine Deutschland," and Courtlandt was called "Dutch Broadway."

For example, in 1871 at the intersection of Courtlandt and Gouverneur (151st Street) — Ruppert's building would occupy the northeast corner — Jacob Sauter, a butcher, lived on the east side of Courtlandt north of Gouverneur; William Langrebe, a tailor, occupied the northwest corner of Courtlandt and Gouverneur; August Schulte had a grocery store on the southeast corner of the intersection. Andrew Schrenk, also listed on the southeast corner, may have lived upstairs. A rooming house occupied the southwest corner, among whose tenants there was an actor and an Irish laundress. August Frenke, a blacksmith in working in Manhattan, dwe









laurel floor lamp







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